Industry terminology

This glossary lists common acronyms, abbreviations and measurements used in Australia’s energy industry.

Acronyms and abbreviations

  • A

    ABARES Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences

    The research arm of the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources that provides professionally independent data, research, analysis and advice to inform public and private decisions affecting Australian agriculture, fisheries and forestry.

    ACCC Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

    Australia's competition regulator and national consumer law champion.

    ADL Average Daily Load

    The average daily consumption of electricity by a customer.

    AEMC Australian Energy Market Commission

    The independent rule-maker for Australia’s electricity and gas markets.

    AEMO Australian Energy Market Operator

    Manages Australia’s electricity and gas systems and markets, ensuring that all Australians have access to reliable, secure, affordable and sustainable energy.

    AER Australian Energy Regulator

    Regulates electricity networks and covered gas pipelines.

    AGC Automatic Generation Control

    A process that detects minor deviations in power system frequency and sends raise or lower signals to generating units providing regulation.

    AGE Adjusted Gross Energy

    The amount of energy to be adjusted for a trading interval.

    AMI Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    An integrated system of meters, communications networks, and data management systems that enables two-way communication between providers and customers.

    ANTS Annual National Transmission Statement

    A document outlining AEMO’s vision for national transmission planning. 

    APLNG Australia Pacific LNG

    Australia’s largest producer of natural gas sourced from coal seams in eastern Australia.

    APR Annual Planning Report

    Reports from transmission planning businesses, outlining potential future needs for network replacement or augmentation in the NEM.

    ARENA Australian Renewable Energy Agency

    An agency established by the Australian government in 2012 to improve the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies and increase the supply of renewable energy in Australia.

    ASEFS Australian Solar Energy Forecasting System

    A system used by AEMO to produce solar generation forecasts.

    AWEFS Australian Wind Energy Forecasting System

    A system used by AEMO to produce wind generation forecasts.

  • B

    BMP Basic Meter Profile

    Records the total amount of energy consumed at a connection point from the initial energisation of the meter. 

    BMRG Business-to-Business and Market Settlement and Transfer Solutions Reference Group

    Established to provide advice to the Information Exchange Committee (IEC) on the issues and opportunities relating to the B2B framework and its procedures, and to develop changes to these where necessary on behalf of the IEC.

    BOM Bureau of Meteorology

    Executive agency of the Australian government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. Strategic partnership with AEMO for forecasting since 2018.

  • C

    CATS Customer Administration and Transfer Solution

    A set of procedures, principles and obligations made under the National Electricity Rules as part of Market Settlement and Transfer Solutions (MSATS), and applicable to NMI (National Metering Identifier) small and large classifications. 

    CCGT Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

    Uses both gas and steam turbine cycles in a single plant to produce electricity with high conversion efficiencies and low emissions.

    CGP Carpentaria Gas Pipeline

    A transmission pipeline system in Queensland. 

    CIR Congestion Information Resource

    A consolidated source of information relevant to the understanding and management of transmission network congestion (constraint) risk.

    CLP Controlled Load Profile

    A profile applied to the controlled load basic meter readings to convert them into
    energy consumption for each 30-minute trading interval for settlement purposes.

    COAG Council of Australian Governments

    The peak intergovernmental forum in Australia.

    CTP Capacity trading platform

    An online platform that shippers can use to trade secondary pipeline capacity ahead of the nomination cut-off time.

  • D

    DAA Day Ahead Auction

    An auction of contracted but un-nominated capacity in Pipeline Capacity Trading (PCT). It is conducted after nomination cut-off and is subject to a reserve price of zero. 

    DB Distribution Business

    In the energy sector, these refer to businesses that convert high-voltage electricity back to a low voltage for distribution via the infrastructure of poles and wires.

    DER Distributed Energy Resources

    Distribution level resources which produce electricity or actively manage consumer demand (examples include solar rooftop PV systems and batteries, and demand response via hot water systems, pool pumps, smart appliances and air conditioning control).

    DI Dispatch Interval

    A trading period of time for which the electricity price is set in the market.

    DLF Distribution Loss Factor

    The loss of energy, due to electrical resistance and the heating of conductors, as electricity flows through the transmission and distribution networks.

    DMS Dispute Management System

    A system designed to manage the resolution of disputes, and a requirement for AEMO and all registered participants. 

    DNSP Distribution Network Service Provider

    A business that owns, operates or controls an electricity distribution network. 

    DTS Declared Transmission System (Victoria)

    Victoria’s gas transmission system, operated by AEMO.

    DUFG Distribution Unaccounted For Gas

    Business rules and data formats which enables the exchange of required information between distributors and market participants. 

    DUOS Distribution Use of System Charge

    Charge levied by distribution network businesses to recover operations and maintenance costs and investment returns on distribution assets.

    DWGM Declared Wholesale Gas Market

    A Victorian gas market that allows trading on injections and withdrawals from the Declared Transmission System (DTS).

  • E

    EAAP Energy Adequacy Assessment Projection

    A quarterly AEMO report of projected energy availability for each region over a 24-month period for three different rainfall scenarios.

    EGP Eastern Gas Pipeline

    A pipeline that runs to/from Sydney to Melbourne to supply southern domestic demand.

    EMS Energy Management System

    A computer system that gathers real-time telemetered information on the network, substations, generators and loads.

    EMMS Energy Market Management System

    The wholesale system determining the cost of energy. 

    EN Embedded network

    Private electricity networks that serve multiple premises and are located within, or connected to, a distribution or transmission system through a parent connection in the National Electricity Market.

    ENLR Embedded Network Local Retailer

    The designated retailer for small customers seeking connection to an embedded network. 

    EoD End of Day (gas)

    Benchmark price of gas for the previous day as per the National Gas Rules.

    EoD LP End of Day Linepack

    Gas in pipelines, measured at the end of a gas day at 6am. EOD LP is equal to the beginning-of-day linepack (BOD LP) for the next gas day.

    ERAWA Economic Regulation Authority Western Australia

    WA’s independent economic regulator.

    ESB Energy Security Board

    Responsible for the implementation of the recommendations from the Independent Review into the Future Security of the National Energy Market (the Finkel Review). It also provides whole-of-system oversight for energy security and reliability.

    ESOO Electricity Statement of Opportunities

    AEMO’s 20-year demand forecast and 10-year supply adequacy assessment for electricity in the National Electricity Market (NEM); and AEMO’s 10-year demand and supply adequacy forecast for the South West interconnected system (SWIS) in Western Australia. 

    EUR Estimated ultimate recovery

    An approximation of the quantity of gas that is potentially recoverable or has already been recovered from a reserve.

    ETS Emissions Trading Scheme

    A market-based scheme for environmental improvement that allows parties to buy and sell permits for emissions, or credits for reductions in emissions, of certain pollutants.

  • F

    FCAS Frequency Control Ancillary Services

    A service that balances, over short intervals (shorter than the dispatch interval), the power supplied by generating units and the power consumed by loads.

    FRC Full Retail Contestability

    The gas and electricity markets in which customers are free to select their energy retailer.

    FRMP Financially Responsible Market Participant

    The market participant who is responsible for dealings with AEMO in relation to a specific load.

  • G

    GBB Gas Bulletin Board

    Provides gas market and system information covering all major gas production fields, major demand centres and natural gas transmission pipelines in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania.

    GELF Generator Energy Limitation Framework

    A description of the energy constraints that affect the ability of a scheduled generating unit to generate electricity prepared in accordance with the Energy Adequacy Assessment Projection (EAAP) guidelines.

    GGAS Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme

    The first mandatory trading scheme aiming to lower greenhouse gas emissions in New South Wales.

    GLNG Gladstone LNG

    A liquefied natural gas plant in Queensland.

    GPG Gas Powered Generation

    Electricity generation or generator powered by gas.

    GRCF Gas Retail Consultative Forum

    A monthly forum for consultation between AEMO and stakeholders on the development of the retail gas markets operating in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.

    GSH Gas Supply Hub

    An exchange for the wholesale trading of natural gas.

    GSI Gas Services Information

    A suite of regulatory instruments to improve security and transparency of information in Western Australia. They establish the Western Australia Gas Bulletin Board (WA GBB) and Western Australia Gas Statement of Opportunities WA GSOO).

    GSOO Gas Statement of Opportunities

    AEMO’s 20-year forecast of gas demand and supply adequacy in eastern and south-eastern Australia; and AEMO’s 10-year forecast of gas demand and supply adequacy in WesternAustralia’s domestic market.

    GWCF Gas Wholesale Consultative Forum

    Enables collaboration between AEMO, the Australian Energy Market Commission, the Australian Energy Regulator, relevant jurisdictional bodies, industry participants, and other interested parties on the development and implementation of changes to AEMO’s east coast wholesale gas markets and related market systems.

  • H
    No abbreviations or acronyms.
  • I

    IGCC Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

    A technology that uses a high-pressure gasifier to turn coal and other carbon-based fuels into pressurised gas, known as synthesis gas or syngas. It can then remove impurities from the syngas prior to the power generation cycle.

    IRSR Inter Regional Settlement Residue

    Relates solely to settlement transactions within a region – and not listed for auctions – but distributed to, or recovered from, the appropriate Transmission Network Service Providers (TNSPs).

    ISP Integrated System Plan

    AEMO’s whole-of-system plan that provides an integrated roadmap for the development of the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    JPB Jurisdictional Planning Body

    An entity nominated by the relevant Minister of the relevant participating jurisdiction as having transmission system planning responsibility (in that participating jurisdiction).

  • J

    JPB Jurisdictional Planning Body

    An entity nominated by the relevant Minister of the relevant participating jurisdiction as having transmission system planning responsibility (in that participating jurisdiction).

  • K
    No abbreviations or acronyms.
  • L

    LF Loss Factor

    Annual calculations reflecting the amount of electricity lost on electrical transmission and distribution networks.

    LFAS Load Following Ancillary Service

    A power system security ancillary service in WA’s South West Interconnected System (SWIS), where assigned generators automatically and constantly change their output to compensate for load and wind fluctuations, to regulate system frequency.

    LFRG Load Forecasting Reference Group

    A group dedicated to sharing expertise and facilitating the continued development and accuracy of AEMO’s gas and electricity forecasts.

    LMP Longford to Melbourne Pipeline

    The pipeline that transports gas from Longford in South Gippsland, Victoria, to Melbourne.

    LNG Liquefied Natural Gas

    Natural gas cooled to liquid form so it can easily be transported.

    LNSP Local Network Service Provider

    The organisation that owns the poles and wires used to distribute electricity to premises within a geographical area and in the relevant participating jurisdiction.

    LOR Lack of Reserve

    A notification indicating a reduction in pre-determined electricity reserve levels, due to changes in supply or demand. The lowest notice, LOR1, tells the market more reserves are needed to cover a major contingency – the highest, LOR3, indicates the balance of supply and demand is so tight that load shedding is imminent or has begun. 

    LP Linear Program

    A mathematical method that is used to determine the best possible outcome or solution from a given set of parameters or list of requirements.

    LPA Linepack Account

    A market-balancing mechanism in the Declared Transmission System (DTS) that accounts for imbalance and deviation payments, and the costs associated with unaccounted-for gas (UAFG).

    LR Local Retailer

    A business unit or related body corporate of the relevant local network service provider, or 
    responsible under the laws of the relevant participating jurisdiction for the supply of electricity to franchise customers in that local area.

    LRC Low Reserve Condition

    When AEMO forecasts that a region's reserves will fall short of what is required to meet the reliability standard.

    LRET Large-scale Renewable Energy Target

    A target scheme that incentivises the development of renewable energy power stations in Australia.

    LRMC Long-Run Marginal Cost

    Describes the revenue required to exactly cover financing costs, and the fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, of the investment over the generating system’s lifetime.

  • M

    MAMP Metering Asset Management Plan

    A plan submitted by service providers to manage the performance of metering installations over their lifecycle.

    MAPS Moomba to Adelaide Pipeline

    A natural gas pipeline in South Australia delivering gas from the Cooper Basin gas wells near Moomba to Adelaide.

    MAS Metering Administration System

    Predecessor to MSATS

    MCE Market Clearing Engine

    A software system that determines daily operational and pricing schedules for the Victorian natural gas market.

    MD Maximum Demand

    Forecasts to indicate peak demand for electricity, in this case at its half-hourly interval usage.

    MDA Metering Data Agent

    An agency that submits meter data to AEMO, including the timing and format of submissions.

    MDFF Meter Data File Format

    The standard format for delivery of metering data to market participants, service providers and registered participants.

    MDP Meter Data Provider

    An organisation which installs, commissions, gathers, and verifies data remotely from meters in the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    MDQ Maximum Daily Quantity

    A withdrawal right for customers and/or market participants on the Declared Transmission System (DTS) for transported gas injected at Longford.

    MFP Market Floor Price

    The National Electricity Rules’ minimum at which gas can be bid, offered, or scheduled in the market. The AEMC’s Reliability Panel reviews the MFP every four years.

    MIBB Market Information Bulletin Board

    The IT interface through which AEMO communicates with gas market participants.

    MILP Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    An approach that determines the operation of the integrated power voltage and storage systems for the typical household demand profile.

    MIRN Metering Identification Reference Number

    A unique number that identifies each gas meter.

    MLF Marginal Loss Factor

    Reflects the impact of electricity losses along the transmission network between a connection point and the regional reference node of the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    MML Market Minutes Lost

    The number of interruptions in time experienced by customers.

    MNSP Market Network Service Provider

    A network service provider (NSP) that earns revenue from the spot market.

    MOS Market Operator Service

    A standing arrangement between AEMO (the market operator) and pipeline operators for supplying or withdrawing gas beyond the quantities provided by the pipeline schedules.

    MP Metering Provider

    Accredited providers authorised to install meters.

    MPB Metering Provider (provide, install, maintain)

    Accredited organisations that can provide, install or maintain a metering installation.

    MPC Market Price Cap

    The National Electricity Rules’ maximum price at which gas can be bid, offered, or scheduled in the market. The AEMC’s Reliability Panel reviews the MFP every four years.  

    MRET Mandated Renewable Energy Target

    A government scheme that creates demand for electricity generated from renewable sources.

    MRIM Manually Read Interval Meter

    Digital meters which record usage in 30-minute intervals.

    MRL Minimum Reserve Level

    A calculation that works out the electricity generation capacity required to meet the Reliability Standard.

    MSATS Market Settlement and Transfer Solutions

    The procedures published by AEMO under clause 7.2.8 of the National Electricity Rules, which include those governing the recording of financial responsibility for energy flows at a connection point, the transfer of that responsibility between market participants, and the recording of energy flows at a connection point.

    MSOR Market and System Operations Rules

    The policies and procedures governing Victoria’s Gas Retail Markets. 

    MSP Moomba to Sydney Pipeline

    A transmission pipeline that operates from Moomba in South Australia across New South Wales to Sydney.

    MT PASA Medium Term Projected Assessment of System Adequacy

    A 24-month supply demand forecast, published weekly, with daily resolution.

  • N

    NEL National Electricity Law

    The schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 which establishes the governance and enforcement framework and key obligations surrounding the National Electricity Market (NEM) and the regulation of access to electricity networks.

    NEM National Electricity Market

    A wholesale electricity market in which electricity in sold by generators and bought by retailers (who on-sell it to consumers) or large-scale customers. It operates in the New South Wales (and the Australian Capital Territory), Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, and Victoria.

    NEMDE NEM Dispatch Engine (previously SPD)

    Software developed and used by AEMO to ensure the central dispatch process maximises value of trade, subject to the various constraints.

    NEMMCO National Electricity Market Management Company Limited

    The organisation responsible for the administration and operation of the National Electricity Market (NEM) from May 2006 to 30 June 2009. From 1 July 2009 these functions were absorbed by AEMO.

    NEMnet National Electricity Market participant network

    A network of more than 300 registered participants in the National Electricity Market, including market generators, transmission network service providers, distribution network service providers, and market customers.

    NEMW-CF National Electricity Market Wholesale Consultative Forum

    A forum providing stakeholders and interested parties with the opportunity to contribute ideas into developing and improving the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    NEO National Electricity Objective

    The objective to promote efficient investment in, and efficient operation and use of, electricity services for the long-term interests of consumers of electricity with respect to the reliability, safety and security of the national electricity system.

    NER National Electricity Rules

    The rules made under the National Electricity Law (NEL). They govern the day-to-day operations of the National Electricity Market (NEM) and provide the framework for network regulation.

    NERL National Energy Retail Law

    A schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011, which regulates the supply and sale of gas and electricity from retailers and distributors to customers.

    NERR National Energy Retail Rules

    Rules made under the NERL. They provide detailed information about consumer protection measures and model contract terms and conditions, as well as facilitating the provision of electricity and gas services to retail customers and basic terms and conditions contained in retail contracts.

    NGATS NSW Gas Abatement Scheme

    A mandatory scheme that aimed to lower greenhouse gas emissions in New South Wales. It ran from 2003 to 2012.

    NGERAC National Gas Emergency Response Advisory Committee

    A working group of the COAG Energy Council that advises governments on responses to, and management of major gas supply interruptions affecting two or more jurisdictions.

    NGF National Generators Forum

    A forum for representatives of electricity producers in the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    NGL National Gas Law

    A schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 that establishes the governance framework and key obligations relating to the access to gas pipelines, including AEMO’s role and functions.

    NGR National Gas Rules

    The rules made under the NGL. They govern access to natural gas pipeline services and elements of broader natural gas markets.

    NMAS Non-Market Ancillary Services

    Services to support power system security in the NEM that are acquired by AEMO outside the market, under bilateral contracts. AEMO can acquire SRAS and NSCAS in this way.

    NMI National Metering Identifier

    A unique 10- or 11-digit number used to identify every electricity network connection point in Australia.

    NMNS Non-Market Non-Scheduled generating unit

    A generating unit that sells its entire output directly to a local retailer or customer at the same connection point under a power purchase agreement. It is not scheduled by AEMO as part of central dispatch.

    NMS Non-Market Scheduled generating unit

    A generating unit that sells its entire output directly to a local retailer or customer at the same connection point under a power purchase agreement. It is scheduled by AEMO as part of central dispatch.

    NOS Network Outage Scheduler

    Lists the planned network outages for work on the transmission system of the NEM.

    NQGP North Queensland Gas Pipeline

    A transmission pipeline located in north-east Queensland, supplying gas from Moranbah gas processing plant to large industrial customers in Townsville.

    NRNSP Non Registered Network Service Provider

    A network service provider that has been granted an exemption from registration. 

    NSA Network Support Agreement

    The binding terms of agreement that form a contract.

    NSCAS Network Support and Control Ancillary Services

    A non-market service that may be procured by AEMO or Transmission Network Service Providers to maintain power system security and reliability, and to maintain or increase the power transfer capability of the transmission network.

    NSL Net System Load

    A method used by AEMO to approximate how much electricity is used by all consumers with accumulation meters in a region, for each half hour of the day.

    NSLP Net System Load Profile

    A profile applied to convert all second-tier basic meter readings into energy consumption for each 30-minute trading interval for settlement purposes.

    NSP Network Service Provider

    A party that owns, operates or controls an electricity transmission or distribution system.

    NSRD Next Scheduled Read Date

    The day in which the data from a meter will next be taken.

    NTC Network Tariff Code

    An operational document for customers, electricity retailers and consultants, setting out the codes, application rules and rates for each network tariff.

    NTNDP National Transmission Network Development Plan

    An annual report with a 20-year outlook that identifies transmission and generation development opportunities for a range of market development scenarios.

    NTP National Transmission Planner

    Part of AEMO’s role under the National Electricity Law (NEL) and in accordance with clause 5.20.2 of the National Electricity Rules (NER). Includes publication of a yearly plan for the future of network.

  • O

    OCD Over-Constrained Dispatch

    The condition where any energy or Frequency Control Ancillary Services (FCAS) price from any region is greater than or equal to Value of Loss Load (VoLL) or less than or equal to market price floor and there exists an eligible violated constraint.

    OCGT Open Cycle Gas Turbine

    An internal combustion engine consisting of a compressor, combustor and power turbine that compresses and ignites an air/fuel mixture to create rotary motion.

    OPDMS Operations and Planning Data Management System

    A software system that supports the planning and operations functions in an electricity market environment.

  • P

    PACR Project Assessment Conclusion Report

    A document published at the end of a Regulatory Investment Test (RIT) process, that assesses project parameters and delivers recommendations.

    PADR Project Assessment Draft Report

    A draft document that identifies a preferred option, outlines feedback received from stakeholders on the PSCR, and seeks feedback from stakeholders on the preferred option before a RIT project can be concluded.

    PASA Projected Assessment of System Adequacy

    A comprehensive program of information collection, analysis and disclosure of long-, medium- and short-term power system reliability prospects.

    PCT Pipeline Capacity Trading

    An exchange-based market that allows participants to trade space gas pipeline capacity. It operates as part of the Gas Supply Hub (GSH). 

    PF Power Factor

    Always a number between 0 and 1. Within an AC electric power system, it is defined as the ratio of the real power (P measured in the units MW) flowing to the load, to the apparent power (S measured in the units MVA). 

    POC Power of Choice

    A government-led, industry-wide program to provide consumers with more opportunities to make informed choices about the way they consume electricity. PoC was implemented in 2017.

    POE Probability of Exceedance

    A generalised approach to defining the probability of exceedance of electricity demand forecasts. It means the likelihood of a forecast being met or exceeded, and is expressed as a percentage (10%, 50% or 90%), or as a 1-in-2, 1-in-10, or 1-in-20 years probability.

    PSCR Project Specification Consultation Report

    The first report in a Regulatory Investment Test (RIT) process, that describes a need and potential options to meet this need.

  • Q

    QCLNG Queensland Curtis LNG

    A LNG export facility at Gladstone in Central Queensland.

    QGP Queensland Gas Pipeline

    Pipeline linking the Wallumbilla gas hub in south-central Queensland to large industrial gas users in Gladstone and Rockhampton.

    QNI Queensland – New South Wales Interconnector

    Infrastructure that connects the energy transmission systems of Queensland and New South Wales. It runs between Dumaresq in New South Wales and Bulli Creek in Queensland.

  • R

    RBP Roma to Brisbane Pipeline

    A transmission pipeline that transports natural gas between the Wallumbilla gas hub, near Roma, and Brisbane and regional centres in between.

    RCM Reserve Capacity Mechanism

    A protocol ensuring that there is sufficient generation capacity in the South West Integrated System (SWIS) by setting a reserve capacity requirement two years ahead. It is unique to Western Australia.

    RERT Reliability and Emergency Reserve Trader

    A function conferred on AEMO to maintain power system reliability and security. It does so by using contracts to procure reserve.

    RET Renewable Energy Target

    An Australian government scheme designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the electricity sector and encourage the additional generation of electricity from sustainable and renewable sources.

    RIT-D Regulatory Investment Test for Distribution

    A regulatory mechanism that applies an economic cost-benefit test on new distribution network investments proposed for the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    RIT-T Regulatory Investment Test for Transmission

    A regulatory mechanism that applies an economic cost-benefit test on new transmission electricity investments proposed for the National Electricity Market (NEM).

    ROLR Retailer of Last Resort

    A scheme principally designed to ensure that in the event of retailer failure, arrangements are in place to ensure customers continue to receive electricity and/or gas supply.

    RP Responsible Person

    The participant with formal responsibility for the provision, installation and maintenance of a metering installation.

    RRN Regional Reference Node

    Reference point (or designated reference node) for setting a region’s spot price.

    RRP Regional Reference Price

    Spot price at the regional reference node.

  • S

    SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

    A system that gathers real-time data from remote terminal units and other communication sources in the field and enables operators to control field devices from their consoles.

    SDPC Supply and Demand Point Constraints

    Contractual, physical and operating limits at system injection or withdrawal points external to Victoria’s Declared Transmission System (DTS). These are applied to both pricing schedules and operating schedules.

    SEA Gas South East Australia Gas Pipeline

    A number of transmission pipelines operating across South Australia.

    SRA Settlement Residue Auction

    Auctions run by AEMO to sell the rights to the settlements residue associated with inter-regional transfers. Only certain classifications of participants are able to participate in the auctions. 

    SRAS System Restart Ancillary Service

    The set of contracted restart services procured by AEMO to facilitate the supply of sufficient energy to enable the orderly restart of other (large) generating units.

    ST PASA Short Term Projected Assessment of System Adequacy

    A daily load forecast that shows expected demand two to seven days ahead of time. 

    STTM Short Term Trading Market

    A wholesale market that facilitates short-term gas trading between gas shippers and users. STTM hubs operate in Adelaide, Brisbane and Sydney.

    SWIS South West Interconnected System

    The power system that supplies electricity to south-west Western Australia.

    SWP South West Pipeline

    A pipeline facilitating gas flows from Victoria to South Australia. 

    SWQP South West Queensland Pipeline

    A natural gas transmission pipeline from Ballera to Wallumbilla.

  • T

    TA Trading Amount

    The calculation of a quantity to be settled after each billing period. 

    TGP Tasmanian Gas Pipeline

    A pipeline supplying national gas from Longford in Victoria, under the Bass Strait, to Bell Bay in Tasmania.

    THD Total Harmonic Distortion

    A measurement used in power systems of how much of the distortion of a voltage or current is due to harmonics in the signal.

    TI Trading Interval

    A period of time prescribed in both the National Electricity Rules and National Gas Rules for the wholesale exchange.

    TLF Transmission Loss Factor

    A calculation that ensures customers aren’t charged for the electricity that is lost in transit over poles and wires.

    TNI Transmission Node Identifier

    The code the relevant transmission node that identifies the transmission loss factor and/or transmission use of system charge for the connection point.

    TNSP Transmission Network Service Provider

    A party that owns, controls or operates a transmission system.

    TUOS Transmission Use of System Charge

    Charge levied by transmission asset owners to recover costs for the provision of shared network services.

  • U

    UAFG Unaccounted For Gas

    The difference between the measured quantity of gas entering the gas distribution system from various supply points and the gas delivered to customers.

    UFE Unaccounted For Energy

    The difference between metered injected gas supply, and metered and allocated gas at delivery points, it comprises gas losses, metering errors, timing, heating value error, allocation error, and other factors.

    UGS Underground Gas Storage

    A storage plant that pumps excess supply underground, so that the gas can then be extracted for later use.

    UIGF Unconstrained Intermittent Generation Forecast

    A forecast of available capacity for wind and solar generating units for the period five minutes to two years ahead.

    UMCP Unmetered Connection Point

    Connection points, such as street lights and traffic lights, that don’t need an electricity meter because the usage is predictable and can be calculated without a meter.

    USE Unserved Energy

    The amount of energy that cannot be supplied because there is insufficient generation capacity, demand-side participation, or network capability to meet demand.

  • V

    VAPR Victorian Annual Planning Report

    A plan that considers the adequacy of the Victorian transmission network to meet its reliability and security requirements, and identifies development opportunities to address emerging network limitations.

    VCR Value of Customer Reliability

    Represents a customer's willingness to pay for the reliable supply of electricity.

    VGPR Victorian Gas Planning Report

    A plan providing an assessment of supply and demand, and pipeline capacity adequacy for the Victorian Declared Transmission System (DTS) over the next five years.

    VoLL Value of Lost Load

    A monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply.

    VPP Virtual Power Plant

    An aggregation of resources, coordinated using software and communications technology to deliver services that have traditionally been performed by a conventional power plant. In Australia, grid-connected VPPs are focused on coordinating rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems and battery storage.

    VRE Variable Renewable Energy

    Renewable energy that fluctuates, such as solar or wind.

  • W X Y Z

    WA GBB Western Australia Gas Bulletin Board (WA)

    A public website that publishes forecast and historical data on the domestic production, transmission, storage and usage of natural gas in WA.

    WA GSOO Western Australia Gas Statement of Opportunities (WA)

    An annual report that provides forecasts of WA domestic gas demand and potential supply over a 10-year period, including an overview of gas infrastructure and emerging issues.

    WEM Wholesale Electricity Market (WA)

    A wholesale electricity market supplying energy to south-west Western Australia. It operates on the South West Interconnected System (SWIS).

    WEMS Wholesale Electricity Market System

    The IT interface used to administer the Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM).

    WIGS Wholesale, interconnector, generator or sample (NMI classifications)

    A set of procedures, principles and obligations made under the National Electricity Rules as part of Market Settlement and Transfer Solutions (MSATS), and applicable to NMI (National Metering Identifier) s wholesale, interconnector, generator, and sample classifications. 

    WTS Western Transmission System

    Transports gas to Portland, Hamilton and Cobden.


  • Units of measurement

    CDD Cooling degree days

    DD Degree days

    EDD Effective degree days



    Gigawatt hours

    Heating degree days

    Hertz (frequency)


    kVA Kilovolt amperes

    KW Kilowatts

    KWh Kilowatt hours

    Mtpa Million tonnes per annum

    MVA Megavolt amperes

    MVAr Megavolt amperes reactive

    MW Megawatts

    MWh Megawatt hours

    PJ Petajoules

    Pje Petajoules equivalent

    TJ Terajoules

    TW Terrawatts

    TWh Terawatt hours

    V Volts

    Var Volt-ampere reactive

    W Watt

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